Fiona Walsh

Fiona Walsh is a person of many obsessions who spends her time trying to combine them all. Photography and a passionate love of science keeps her out and about exploring everything she can find in the natural world. From the beauty of a sunset and auroras to the intricate details of the world of fungi and the lower plant kingdom she is never short of something to keep her mind racing. In between her fascination with the natural world she spends her time studying plant science at UTAS, hanging out with her husband and kids and generally getting side tracked with the latest obsession that has caught her fancy.

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The Definitive Guide – How to Find and Photograph Sea Sparkle Bioluminescence

Text and images by Dr Lisa-ann Gershwin, Fiona Walsh, and Matt Holz

Images by Arwen Dyer, Leena Wisby, and Jo Malcomson

Spectacular masses of Noctiluca scintillans (Latin for “sparkling night light”) has brought thousands of people to the shorelines of southern Tasmania, hoping to catch a glimpse of sea sparkles, or bioluminescence. Many questions about how and where to look have been posted to the Facebook page, Bioluminescence Tasmania, and the activity there has catalysed this guide.

Here is a brief Q&A-style go-to resource for finding and photographing sea sparkles. If you get the timing and location right, you can go down to the beach and have a look at the water’s edge, make a splash, and watch the sparkles.



Seasonality: Sea Sparkles, or bioluminescence, can occur anytime, anywhere, because it is created by a variety of organisms with different ecological profiles. Noctiluca scintillans, the organism responsible for the recent brilliant displays, is commonest in the warmer months, but may be found any time of year.

Time of day: Noctiluca is positively buoyant, meaning that it will concentrate at the surface if left undisturbed. During the day, thick blooms of Noctiluca appear as a soft pink haze on the surface of the water, sometimes so thick that the bottom cannot be seen in even only a few cm of water. At night, these thick pink clouds may be seen with a torch, but the bioluminescence is best observed in total darkness once the eyes have acclimatized to the dark.

Most bioluminescent organisms – including Noctiluca – have an inbuilt biological clock that tells them when it is night or day, and they will not flash during daytime, even if put into a dark room.

Weather conditions: Noctiluca is around all the time in fairly low numbers, too sparse to put on a good light display. After a rainstorm, however, nutrient runoff into the water acts as fertilizer, stimulating a phytoplankton bloom. Therefore, when the days have been calm and sunny after a decent rain are the best nights to look for Sea Sparkles.

Gentle breezes will concentrate the bloom against the shore, whereas stronger winds will create too much turbulence for Noctiluca to stay at the surface, and it will sink down and disperse.



Longitude and latitude: Noctiluca is widespread around the world, and is most often observed in coastal areas. In Tasmania, it has been found in many locations, but is quite common in southern Tasmania where it responds well to the high nutrient load from urban discharge, agricultural runoff, aquaculture, and the slow flow situation created naturally by Storm Bay and the Derwent Estuary.

Habitat: The best habitats in which to observe Sea Sparkles are those where either (A) the wind is gently blowing straight into a bay, concentrating the bloom in one place, or (B) protected places where they are trapped and can’t get out. Examples of good bays would be Ralph’s Bay on South Arm during a gentle northerly or westerly breeze, or Howden on a southerly (winds are named for the direction that they blow from). Examples of protected places include Lauderdale Canal, Cremorne, Sullivan’s Cove, or Brown’s River in Kingston.


Bioluminescence from Noctiluca sea sparkle occurs in three ways. Because the human eye does not see colour at night unless it is quite bright, a dull but definite glow throughout the bloom may appear to the naked eye as pale whitish. Where the cells are stimulated through agitation – a breaking wave, footsteps along the water’s edge, a rock or sand tossed into the water, a dog or child splashing about, or a dancing photographer – brilliant neon blue flashes will occur that are easily visible to the naked eye. And where the water washes up on the sand then back down again, cells left behind on the beach will glitter on their own; this also happens with cells stranded on our hands or clothing.



Camera type: In mild to moderate bloom conditions, a camera with adjustable settings (e.g., a DSLR) will produce the best photos. In dense and widespread blooms, any camera will produce good images; during the recent bloom event, even iPhones were producing good stills and videos.

Intriguingly, with bioluminescence, if it is bright enough to plainly see blue colour with the naked eye, a photograph will effectively “flatten” the image so that the dynamic action of the flashes and glitters becomes essentially one broad wash of colour. In these cases, video is ideal to capture the action.

Settings: On DSLR cameras or those with adjustable settings, the following generic guideline can be adjusted as appropriate. Use your tripod, steady rock, or post. (Further information on settings can be found in the owner’s manual for each camera, or online):

  1. Focus: With the lens in manual focus mode, set your infinity focus. Disengage auto focus.
  2. Shooting mode: Turn the camera to manual mode.
  3. ISO: begin with about 1600, moving up when necessary. Remember, too high ISO gives grainy photos.
  4. Aperture (f-stop): set as wide as it will go (small number, big opening): e.g., 3.5 or 1.8 if your camera allows.
  5. Shutter speed: For softer definition and more “glow”, go for a longer exposure, like 30 seconds. For more “flash” and less glow, choose a faster exposure like 10 seconds or even 3 or 5. A faster shutter will need a higher ISO. This is largely where the art comes in.

Post-processing of photos: Most of the photographs produced from the recent bioluminescence event were distributed as unretouched, or non-photoshopped. Quite simply, the colour was so stunning straight out the camera, that nothing needed to be done to enhance it or more fully develop the undertones.

For paler light shows, some photographers may wish to “fiddle” with post processing to reach the artistic expression that is pleasing to them. Programs like Photoshop, Lightroom, Gimp, Zoner, etc are widely used.



Are they dangerous to humans? Do not ingest Noctiluca or put it on the face, eyes, or mouth. Brief handling such as swishing water with the hands or dancing in the light generally cause no adverse effects. Still water in canals and lagoons near urban regions must be treated with caution.

Does it hurt them when we splash around? Splashing around doesn’t hurt them. The tide stranding them on the beach – or us stomping on them – will dry them or crush them; these actions are generally fatal to them. However, they are clonal, so “fatal” is not as terminal as it sounds.

Can I take them home? Yes! In a widemouth jar in a cool area (not the refrigerator or freezer), they will live several days or more. Open the jar during the day, and replace the lid before swirling. They will not luminesce during daytime, but if the jar is tapped or gently swirled at night in a dark room, they will put on quite a sparkling show!

Because they are an introduced pest, after you are finished with them, ecologically appropriate disposal methods include down the drain or poured down the driveway.

What about the ocean? Respect the ocean, water, and seashore. Waves, gravity, and other dangers mus always be kept in mind when exploring the shore at night.



  • Warm clothing
  • Torch for safely traversing to and from the beach at night
  • Camera and tripod: ideally a DSLR or other camera capable of manual mode settings
  • Snacks: it might be a long night if it’s really fascinating, like an aurora and bioluminescence at the same time
  • Lens warmer or lens wipes to reduce night-time condensation
  • Something creative to agitate the water and stimulate the sparkle, if necessary: a broom, bucket, dog, or child
  • Gumboots for dancing in the light (!)



Many questions about how and where to look have been posted to the Facebook page Bioluminescence Australia, (formerly Bioluminescence Tasmania), and the activity there has catalysed this guide.

Special thanks to all who have contributed to the excitement and enthusiasm sparked by these mysterious creatures.

Sea Sparkle – Extreme Bioluminescence in Tasmanian Waters

Text by Dr. Lisa-ann Gershwin and Fiona Walsh

Images by Alison Painter, Dallas Stott, Geraldina Dijkstra, Jonathan Esling, Leoni Williams, Nic Fitzgerald, Paul Fleming, Theresa Ockenden, Dave Reynolds, and Nick Dobinson

We mere mortals have marvelled at Mother Nature since time immemorial: sunsets and sunrises, lightning, hail storms, eclipses, aurorae, rainbows… and even snowbows for that matter. Nature’s art has inspired painters, poets, lovers, and the forlorn, and provided us all with a means of feeling a connection to something so much bigger than ourselves. This connection – this attraction to nature – transcends cultural boundaries, political paradigms, and the passage of time.

And it was has been on full, electric blue display across southern Tasmania.


Our story begins with a handful of aurora photographers, who were out on their regular Friday night aurora hunt. The skies were clear, the moonlight was dim, and the weather mild; unfortunately the aurora failed to develop. As they were heading home, they noticed a strange yet illuminating glow coming from waves lapping in the distance. The tide was too far out to get a closer look, yet curiosity had taken hold and a plan was made to return the next night on the hunt for the glowing stuff. And the rest, as the saying goes, is history.

Photos were posted, the story went viral, media frenzied, young and old flocked to the beach, people flew in from the mainland to see … In the blink of an eye – or really, in a flash of light – Noctiluca became a household word and Tasmania became a bucket-list destination.


The phenomenon of bioluminescence – or sea sparkles – is caused by organisms that make their own light with a chemical reaction inside their body. In this case, the organism is a tiny dinoflagellate called Noctiluca scintillans, Latin for “sparkling night light”. Dinoflagellates are a type of phytoplankton (phyto = plant, plankton = drifter); however, they aren’t true plants, rather, they are microscopic single-celled algae. They are like seaweed, but much smaller. Rather than make their own energy like a plant does, they consume organic matter floating around them, including other single-called organisms like plankton and even fish eggs.


Many types of dinoflagellates are bioluminescent, and may produce different colours of light. Noctiluca flashes or glitters with brilliant neon blue. Singly, each individual emits a tiny speck of light, but en masse, they can light up a beach with an eerie other-worldly glow. Their bioluminescence are usually be observed in three different ways: a dull glowing band along the shore that defines the edge of the concentration, brilliant flashes when disturbed such as by crashing waves or dancing enthusiasts, and gentle twinkling where individual Noctiluca cells have been washed up on the sand.

So bright is their light, in fact, that during World War II, the Japanese dried dinoflagellates into powder and issued envelopes of it to their troops. At night on the front line, the soldiers would pour a bit of powder into their hand, spit on it, and rub it between their palms, giving them enough light to read their maps by without giving away their location.


So what has triggered Tasmania’s recent sea sparkling? The present bloom had been building for a few weeks following rains that washed nutrients into the water; dog poo on the sidewalk and Seasol in Grandma’s garden act like fertilizer for algae when storm runoff gets into the sea. The bloom came to light when the winds blew it into accessible locations, and this extreme bioluminescence event has now been reported across Southeast Tasmania from Kingston, Howden, Battery Point, Howrah, Lauderdale, Eaglehawk Neck, and many points in between. Protected areas, surf beaches … you name it, people are seeing Sea Sparkles there. Many of the most incredible photos were taken at South Arm near the neck, where the northerly breeze blew the Noctiluca into Ralph’s Bay and concentrated them against the shore at the bottom of the bay. The neon blue waves were plainly visible to passing traffic.


This influx into such easily accessible areas has provided a unique opportunity for people to interact with nature in a completely unexpected and thrilling way. A hand dipped in the water comes out glowing an electric blue. A handful of sand thrown over the water produces a spray of sparkles … and then an explosion of light. Sand poured through the hands looks like molten blue light. Footprints at the water’s edge flash then twinkle. A dog splashing in it creates a light show that defies description.


While the spectacular unretouched photos made their way across the world’s headlines and mainlanders booked flights to come see this natural wonder, there is another, more sinister side of this species that is just as surprising as its sparkle: it is a pest. And a bad one at that.


The sad truth is that Noctiluca is one of the world’s most unwanted species. It was first reported in Tasmanian waters in 1994. It is not native here. Its invasive progress has been tracked and studied by researchers at the University of Tasmania, and the story is not a good one. It has spread to more or less every nook and cranny of the Tasmanian coastline, and has recently penetrated the Southern Ocean, expanding ever southward. Periodically when the conditions are right, it blooms into superabundances, the sorts of numbers that are generally only met with in astronomy. Billions. Trillions. Numbers that don’t even have names. In these sorts of numbers, Noctiluca is a killer. As the cells die, they burst and release their ammonia-rich contents into the surrounding water. The water becomes toxic and de-oxygenated. Globally, Noctiluca has more fish kills notched onto its belt than just about any other species. Having said that, it is a sight worth seeing as well as a spectacular reminder for us all to explore the world around us. You never know what amazing things you may find.